In this eLearning module, you will learn about fatty acid metabolism- peroxisomal, alpha, and omega oxidation. In Fatty acid metabolism, mitochondria degrade the majority of long-chain fatty acids to supply acetyl-CoA for the production of ATP and for anabolic reactions. Peroxisomal beta-oxidation is more involved in anabolic processes. The two organelles work together for the metabolism of fatty acids.Peroxisomes are organelles that sequester diverse oxidative reactions and play important roles in metabolism, reactive oxygen species detoxification, and signaling.Alpha oxidation is the oxidation of fatty acids with the removal of one carbon unit adjacent to the alpha carbon from the carboxylic end. Alpha oxidation occurs in those fatty acids that have a methyl group at the beta carbon which blocks beta-oxidation.Omega oxidation is the third and final fatty acid oxidation pathway, that occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum. It exists to process large, water-insoluble fatty acids that would otherwise be toxic to the cell in higher concentrations.
MODULE 2: METABOLISM OF KETONE BODIES
METABOLISM OF KETONE BODIES
In this eLearning module, you will learn about the Metabolism of ketone bodies. Ketone bodies are an important source of energy. These are molecules used by the liver to synthesize acetyl-CoA. The body can use ketones as a source of energy in the absence of a carbohydrate source. Ketone bodies are metabolized through evolutionarily conserved pathways that support bioenergetic homeostasis, particularly in the brain, heart, and skeletal muscle when carbohydrates are in short supply.
MODULE 3: DENOVO SYNTHESIS OF CHOLESTEROL
DENOVO SYNTHESIS OF CHOLESTEROL
In this eLearning module, you will learn about the Denovo synthesis of cholesterol. In mammals, cholesterol is either absorbed from dietary sources or synthesized de novo. Up to 70-80% of the cholesterol in humans is synthesized de novo by the liver and 10% is synthesized de novo by the small intestine. Cancer cells require cholesterol for cell membranes, so cancer cells contain many enzymes for de novo cholesterol synthesis from acetyl-CoA.
MODULE 4: DEGRADATION OF CHOLESTEROL
DEGRADATION OF CHOLESTEROL
In this eLearning module, you will learn about the Degradation of cholesterol. In the degradation of cholesterol, the chief metabolic end products are bile acids, although cholesterol may also be converted into sex hormones and adrenocortical hormones. Since degradation of cholesterol depends on the levels of bile salts in the liver, any factor which will increase the turnover of bile acids will also accelerate cholesterol catabolism and may in turn lower serum cholesterol.
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